Introduction to Mr. Phillips' Thesis
by Marcia Quinn Noren
COPYRIGHT PHILLIPS-NOREN 2002
In February of 2002, Russell Leslie Phillips, a diamond grader and jeweler in Israel was moved to contact Virginia Frohlick, of The Saint Joan of Arc Center in the USA, seeking historic evidence about the life of La Pucelle. Joan's own testimonies describing both her ring and the crown she had seen in a vision, spoke to Mr. Phillips as evidence that her highly informed answers could only come from beyond Joan's experience, from a source outside of herself. His thesis offers a witness for the defense of La Pucelle. Mr. Phillips’ knowledge of the history and practice of metallurgy led him to develop and write a formal thesis that confirms her celestial guides were authentic.
A Thesis Regarding Specific Testimony in
Jeanne d'Arc's Trial of Condemnation
Russell Leslie Phillips
(Diamond Grader/Jeweler Safed, Upper Galilee, Israel)
On Tuesday March 13th, 1431, Jeanne d'Arc was cross-examined in her prison cell at Rouen castle. She was asked several questions regarding the composition of the crown she had described to the court as the "sign" given by God to Charles the dauphin that it was his destiny to ascend the throne of France.
Jeanne was asked, "Of what material was this said crown?"
Jeanne replied, "It is well to know it was of fine gold; it was so rich that I do not know how to count its riches or to appreciate its beauty. The crown signified that my king should possess the kingdom of France."
Jeanne was further asked, "Were there stones in it?"
Jeanne replied, "I have told you what I know of it."
On Saturday March 17th, 1431, Jeanne d'Arc was further interrogated regarding the composition of a ring that had been given to her by her family.
"Of what material was one of your rings, on which was written, "Jhesus Maria?"
Jeanne answered, "I do not exactly know; if it were of gold it was not fine gold. I do not know if it were of gold or of brass."
Jeanne’s answers, in describing both the crown and the ring, use terminology specific to the goldsmith trade that would not have been a part of the common vocabulary of her peasant class, during the Middle Ages.
Craftsmen, who practiced various trades during this time, were required to join guilds, the forerunners of our contemporary trade unions. When the Catholic Church first organized the goldsmith trade, a cloak of exclusivity and mystery was intentionally cast over jewelry making, in order to protect trade secrets as well as to corner the market on this highly lucrative field. Even today, nearly six hundred years later, secrets are still kept around the procedure of "investment casting," the technique of manufacturing gold settings for jewelry.
The Church’s goldsmiths manufactured jewelry in the Middle Ages to a fine gold standard, that is the 24 karat gold standard followed by the 18 karat gold standard, 14 karat gold standard, and the nine karat gold standard. Fine gold is pure, 24 karat gold that has no other alloy or foreign material added to it. Thus, it is very soft. It is so soft in fact, that if one attempts to set diamonds, precious stones or semi-precious stones in it, the stones will in very short time, fall out. To prevent this from happening, the gold had to be literally, toughened up, or made harder. This was done by adding an alloy of metal such as copper, to fine gold.
For example, 18 karat gold is a mixture of 75% fine or pure gold with 25% copper, which adds strength to the composition, ensuring that in any particular design, set stones will remain firm, and not loosen. 14 karat gold is a mixture of 55% fine or pure gold, with 45% copper. This creates an even stronger medium for securing set stones permanently. 9 karat gold is 37% fine gold and 63% copper, creating an even harder mixture for certain jewelry designs.
When Bishop Cauchon and other church officials interrogated Jeanne d'Arc regarding whether or not there were stones set in the fine gold crown sent as a sign to Charles the dauphin, they expected to hear an affirmative answer. Instead, this evidence indicates that she was acting under the influence of divine guidance when she replied, "I have told you what I know of it."
In her answers to the court regarding the ring that her family had given her, she answered as an ordinary person who could not easily make the distinction between brass and the lowest standard of gold. It would in fact, be particularly difficult for the average person to tell the difference between brass and nine karat gold. Jeanne d'Arc's certainty that the crown shown to Charles had been of fine gold, that her ring had not been cast of fine gold, plus her use of these terms, indicate that the source of her knowledge came from outside her own experience, from the source she indicated was always available to her, the celestial counsel of her voices.
In conclusion, if Bishop Cauchon in fact determined that there was reasonable cause to believe that Jeanne was acting under divine guidance, as evidenced by her answers to these questions and others, he and his court should have, at the very least, not sentenced her to death. Under the highest ecclesiastical standards, it would have been most appropriate to further determine the nature and quality of her spiritual state.
Note: References to gold standard information are from the "Santa Fe Symposium."
(A message from the creator of "The+Jhesus+Maria+ Ring" and this thesis; Mr. Russell Leslie Phillips)
I created the "+JHESUS+MARIA+" ring to replace the one that was stolen from Jehanne. I did it using present day lettering and medieval crosses, to combine the past and the future. I did it to give Jehanne a better ring than she had, because she was exposed to beautiful pieces of 'heavenly' jewelry, that Saints Michael, Catherine and Margaret wore upon their heads. This is the only reason for this ring's creation.
Mr. Russell Leslie Phillips gave the following presentation at the23rd Annual International Conference on the Study of Shamanism and Alternative Modes of Healing on September 2nd, 2006 at the Santa Sabina Center, San Rafael, California.
It is presented here in hopes that it will make clear to the average reader what Mr. Phillips is trying to explain in this thesis.
Wednesday May 23rd, 1431, in a room in the Castle of Rouen, situated near the place, which serves as Jehanne D’Arc’s prison
My Lord Bishop of Beauvais, Reverend Fathers, Lords, Bishops, Doctors, and Masters, just before your declaration of "In ipsa causa concludimus."
I rise for the first time, this Wednesday May 23rd, in the year of our Lord, 1431, to apologize most humbly first of all, for my temerity in addressing unannounced this auspicious assembly, and ask for your forgiveness in advance for this apparent affront, as I am a material witness in this case.
I do solemnly swear, declare, and reveal myself to this court, as the person who had engraved on Jehanne D’Arc’s ring, the words ‘Jhesus Maria.’
My name is Russell Leslie Phillips Esquire, and I hail from the County of Essex, a loyal citizen of England. My business interests are in the ancient town of Tiberius, on the shores of the Sea Of Galilee, where our Lord Jhesus Christ of Nazareth practiced, and taught his ministry. I am by profession my Lords, a Diamond Grader, and Jeweler.
My business has taken me to many destinations, among them the town of Domremy, in Lorraine, where I have offered and sold my "Jhesus Maria" rings.
I have had the benefit of hearing all the trial proceedings to date, and I would like to bring this courts attention to Specific Testimony that Jehanne D’Arc has made on Thursday March 1st, Tuesday March 13th, and the Saturday afternoon of March 17th.
On Thursday March 1st, the accused was asked; ‘Who gave you the ring, which the Burgundians now have?’ She replied, ‘My Father or my Mother. I think that the names "Jhesus Maria" are engraved on it. I do not know who had them written there; there is not, I should say, any stone in the ring; it was given to me at Domremy. It was my brother who gave me the other- the one you have. I charge you to give it to the Church. I never cured anyone with any of my rings.’
On Tuesday March 13th the accused was asked; ‘Of what material was the said crown?’ She replied: ‘It is well to know it was of fine gold; it was so rich that I do not know how to count its riches or to appreciate it’s beauty. The crown signified that my King should possess the Kingdom of France’. She was further asked; ‘Were there stones in it?’ She replied; ‘I have told you what I know about it.’
On Saturday Afternoon March 17th, the accused was asked; ‘Of what material was one of your rings, on which was written ‘Jhesus Maria?’ She replied; ‘I do not exactly know; if it were of gold, it was not fine gold; I do not know if it were of gold or of brass; there were three crosses on it, and no other mark that I know of, except "Jhesus Maria."
My Lords, Bishops, Reverend Fathers, Doctors, and Masters, I have no need to inform you from the point of view of my profession, of which the Church is acutely aware, and highly practiced in, that the accused answers, in describing both the crown and the ring, use terminology specific to the goldsmith trade that is not part of the common vocabulary of her peasant class.
I know that when the accused was interrogated, regarding whether or not there were stones set in the "fine gold" crown sent as a sign to Charles the Dauphin, you my Lord Bishop of Beauvais expected to hear an affirmative answer, because as you well know, stones set in "fine gold" will soon fall out, and have to be set in a harder form of gold, where another element has been introduced, such as copper.
Instead, this evidence indicates that the accused was acting under the influence of divine guidance when she more cleverly replied than she was expected; ‘I have told you what I know of it.’ Likewise when she was asked whether the crown did "glitter" which as you very well know, my Lords, is the way "fine gold" appears to the naked eye, and for your pains, you did not receive an answer.
In the accused answers to the court regarding the ring that her family had given her, she answered as an ordinary person who could not easily make the distinction between brass and the lowest standard of gold. It is in fact particularly difficult for the average person to tell the difference between brass, and the lowest form of gold. The accused certainty that the crown shown to Charles had been of "fine gold;" that her ring had not been cast of "fine gold" plus her use of these terms, bears witness to the fact that the source of her knowledge comes from outside her own experience, from the source she indicates that is always available to her, namely St. Catherine of Alexandria, and St. Margaret of Antioch.
My lords, I would like now to provide you with additional corroborative evidence to the accused specific testimony on Saturday afternoon, March 17th, regarding the "smell" of St. Catherine of Alexandria. The accused was asked whether Saints. Catherine and Margaret "smelled good." The accused replied; ‘It is well to know they smelled good.’
I myself, made a pilgrimage together with a retinue of Egyptian guides and porters, to St. Catherine of Alexandria’s Monastery at the base of Mount Sinai, in the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt. In the ceremony there, during which St. Catherine’s relics were unveiled, I did myself smell the sweet fragrance of her head, and I proceeded to kiss her head and touch her with the same "Jhesus Maria" ring that the accused wears, and that I did manufacture.
My Egyptian guide and porter is my witness in this act. My Lords, if you would press me to describe what St. Catherine of Alexandria smelled like, I will reveal here and now, that she smelled of sweet myrrh, in accordance with the accused own testimony.
My Lords, in my conclusion, I therefore declare, that I have determined there is reasonable cause to believe that Jehanne D’Arc, the accused, was acting under divine guidance, as evidenced by her answers to the aforementioned questions, and that Bishop Cauchon and the Judges should not invoke the death penalty, but under the highest ecclesiastical standards should find it most appropriate to further determine the nature and quality of the accused spiritual state.
My Lords, it seems to me that the enemy of this court is not the accused, as given witness to by the "Reasonable Doubt," which I have today demonstrated.
I thank the court for listening to my discourse.
Written and submitted by Russell Leslie Phillips, Esquire, citizen of the County of Essex, England.
The following is the French translation of the above text
Introduction à Thesis de M. Phillips'
par Marcia Quinn Noren
COPYRIGHT 2002 Phillips-noren
En février 2002, Russell Leslie Phillips, diamentaire et bijoutier en
Israel, est entre en contact avec Virginia Frohlick du Centre Jeanne d'arc aux Etats-Unis, recherchant l'évidence historique sur la vie de La Pucelle.
Les propres témoignages de Jeanne décrivant son anneau et la couronne dont elle avait eu la vision, indique à M.Phillips que ces réponses tres precises ne proviendraient pas seulement de l'expérience de Jeanne mais aussi d'une source exterieure. La thèse de M Phillips temoigne en défense de La Pucelle. Son Savoir en matiere d'histoire et pratique de la métallurgie l'a suscite à développer et formellement écrire une thèse confirmant l’authenticite des guides célestes de Jeanne D’Arc.
Thèse par Russell Leslie Phillips d’un témoignage spécifique au proces de condemnation de Jeanne d’Arc
(Diamant Grader/Jeweler Safed, Galilee Supérieur, Israel)
Le mardi 13 mars 1431, Jeanne d’Arc a été interrogée dans sa cellule de prison au château de Rouen. On lui a posé plusieurs questions sur la composition de la couronne qu'elle avait décrite au Jury comme un "signe" de Dieu indiquant au Dauphin Charles, qu’il etait de son destin d’acceder au trône de France.
On lui demanda, "De quelle matiere était ladite couronne?"
Jeanne répondit, "il se doit bien de savoir qu'elle était d'or fin; elle était si precieuse que je ne saurais compter ses richesses ou apprécier sa beauté. La couronne a signifié que mon roi devrait posséder le royaume de France."
On lui demanda de nouveau, "Etait-elle incrustee de pierres?"
Jeanne répondit, "je vous ai dit ce que j’en sais ."
Le samedi 17 mars 1431, Jeanne d’arc a en outre été interrogée sur la composition d'un anneau qui lui avait été donné par sa famille.
"De quelle matiere était un de vos anneaux, sur lequel a été écrit," Jhesus Maria?"
Jeanne répondit, "je ne sais pas exactement; s'il était d'or, ce n'était pas d’or fin. Je ne sais pas s'il était d'or ou de laiton."
En décrivant la couronne et l'anneau, Jeanne a utilise une terminologie propre a l'orfèvrerie qui, au Moyen Age, ne faisait pas partie du vocabulaire commun de sa classe paysanne.
Les artisans de divers commerces a cette epoque etaient requis de joindre les Gildes, associations précurseurs de nos syndicats contemporains. Quand l'église Catholique a pour la première fois organiser l'orfèvrerie, un air d'exclusivité et de mystère fut intentionnellement associe a ce commerce, afin d’en protéger les secrets ainsi qu’ acculer un marché fortement lucratif. Aujourd'hui même, presque six cents ans plus tard, certains secrets sont encore gardés autour du procédé d’"investment casting", une certaine technique de fabrication de bijoux en or .
Les orfèvres de l'église fabriquaient au Moyen Age des bijoux au standard d’or fin de 24 karat, suivi des standards d’or 18, 14 et 9 karat. L'or fin est pur, l’or 24 karat ne comporte aucun alliage ou matériel étranger supplémentaire. Ainsi, cet or est très doux. Il est en fait si doux, que si l’on essaye d’y incruster des diamants, des pierres précieuses ou semi-precieuses, elles chuteraient en tres peu de temps. Pour empêcher cela de se produire, l'or doit etre littéralement endurci en y ajoutant un alliage de metal tel que le cuivre.
Par exemple, l'or 18 karat est un mélange de 75% d’or pur et de 25% de cuivre, renforcant ainsi la composition et assurant que l’incrustation de pierres precieuses resterait ferme et solide. L'or 14 karat est un mélange d'or fin ou pur a 55% et de cuivre a 45%. Ceci crée un bien meilleur moyen de securiser l’incrustation permanente de pierres
L'or 9 karat est fait de 37% d’or fin et 63% de cuivre, créant un mélange encore plus dur pour certaines conceptions de bijoux.
Quand l'évêque Cauchon et d'autres ecclesiastiques ont demande a Jeanne d’Arc s'il y avait des pierres precieuses incrustees dans la couronne
d'or fin, envoyée comme signe au Dauphin Charles, ils s’attendaient a une réponse affirmative. Plutot, il est evident qu'elle agissait sous l'influence de conseils divins quand elle répondit, "je vous ai dit ce que j’en sais."
Ces réponses au Jury concernant l'anneau que sa famille lui avait donné, elle les donna en tant que personne ordinaire qui ne pourrait
pas facilement faire la distinction entre le laiton et le standard d'or le plus faible. Il serait en fait particulièrement difficile pour une personne commune de faire la différence entre de l’or 9 karat et du laiton. La certitude de Jeanne d’Arc que la couronne montrée à Charles avait été d'or fin, que son anneau n'etait pas fait d'or fin, ainsi que son emploi de termes specifiques indiquent que sa connaissance prend source en dehors de sa propre experience et que par cette source etait toujours à sa disposition le conseil céleste de ses voix.
En conclusion, si l’évêque Cauchon avait en fait determine qu'il y avait cause raisonnable pour croire que Jeanne agissait sous des conseils divins- comme demontre par ses réponses a ces questions- sa cour et lui n’auraient pour le moins pas du la condamner à mort. Aux niveaux ecclésiastiques les plus élevés, il aurait été plus approprié de déterminer plus precisement la nature et la qualité de l’état spiritual de Jeanne d’Arc.
Note: Les references d’information sur le standard d’or
Proviennent du"Santa Fe Symposium."
(message de M. Russell Leslie Phillips, créateur de l'"anneau "+Jhesus+Maria+" et de cette thèse; "J'ai créé l'anneau "+jhesus+maria+" pour remplacer celui qui a été volé a Jehanne. Je l'ai fait employant le lettrage de nos jours et les croix médiévales, pour combiner le passé et le futur. Je l'ai fait pour donner à Jehanne un meilleur anneau qu'elle a eu, parce qu'elle a été exposée à des pieces de bijoux "Paradisiques" Celles que Saints Michael, Catherine et Margaret ont porté sur leurs têtes. C'est la seule raison de la création de cet anneau."